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View: antibacterial application of nano materials in post antibiotic era

wallpapers Cruise 2020-08-27
To a certain extent the history of human development of

is the history of continuous struggle with various diseases. Before the discovery application of antibiotics (that is in the era of pre antibiotics) bacterial infection showed the characteristics of "easy to infect easy to epidemic difficult to predict difficult to control" with high morbidity mortality. For example plague caused by Yersinia pestis tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae have caused hundreds of millions of deaths. It is no exaggeration to say that in the pre antibiotic era the diseases caused by bacterial infection are the biggest killers threatening human health. Since the discovery application of antibiotics in 1920s most of the diseases caused by bacterial infection have been effectively treated so human beings have entered the era of antibiotics. Due to the rapid development spread of bacterial resistance in the world

bacterial infection especially the infection caused by drug-resistant bacteria has become an important factor threatening human health. The research group of Professor Ji Jian from the Department of polymer science engineering of Zhejiang University summarized the causes of bacterial drug resistance in detail summarized the methods materials used to solve the problem of bacterial resistance from the perspective of nanomaterials science.

undeniably with the in-depth use of antibiotics bacteria have a serious problem of antibiotic resistance. In recent decades a variety of highly resistant "superbacteria" are spreading around the world at an alarming rate. According to the statistics of the World Health Organization the number of people who died of bacterial resistance in the world increased from 50000 in 2010 to 700000 in 2019. It is estimated that by 2050 the number of deaths caused by bacterial resistance (10 million / year) will exceed that caused by cancer (8.2 million / year). In the face of the increasingly serious problem of bacterial resistance people have placed their hopes on the continuous development of new antibiotics. Unfortunately at present the development speed of antibiotics is far behind the development speed of bacterial resistance. In the past three decades few new antibiotics have been developed. Faced with the severe problem of bacterial resistance the World Health Organization announced in 2013 that the world has entered the "post antibiotic era". With the increasingly serious problem of bacterial resistance the therapeutic effect of antibiotics on all kinds of bacterial infections is becoming weaker weaker. If the problem of bacterial resistance is not solved in time a common cold or a slight cut may bring fatal danger in the near future.

are faced with the severe problem of bacterial drug resistance. Professor Ji Jian from the Department of polymer science engineering of Zhejiang University has conducted in-depth research summary on the causes of bacterial drug resistance. They found that there are two main reasons for the problem of bacterial resistance: one is that bacteria form bacterial biofilms through aggregation. After the formation of bacterial biofilm the factors such as the physical resistance shielding effect of bacterial extracellular matrix on antibiotics enzyme degradation the passivation effect of acidic metabolites on antibiotics the inhibition effect of bacterial biofilm hypoxia on bacterial activity the enhancement effect of colony effect greatly reduce the therapeutic effect of antibiotics greatly enhance the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. Another reason for bacterial evolution antibiotic resistance is bacterial self selection. The accumulation of drug-resistance of bacteria is greatly accelerated due to the long-term (irrational) drug use.

show great potential in the treatment of bacterial infection due to their excellent size effect physical chemical properties easy chemical modification. At present many research teams have reported the use of nano materials for antibacterial research but there is a lack of a systematic summary of strategies to solve the problem of bacterial resistance. In view of this Professor Ji Jian's research group through in-depth research summed up two types of treatment strategies namely non antibiotic treatment based on nano materials enhanced antibiotic treatment assisted by nano materials. Non antibiotic therapy strategies include photothermal therapy based on nanomaterials photodynamic therapy metal nanoparticles therapy drug loaded nanoparticles therapy polymer based nanoparticles therapy. Antibiotic treatment strategies include destruction of bacterial extracellular matrix to enhance antibiotic treatment inhibition of colony effect to enhance antibiotic treatment reduction of bacterial biofilm hypoxia to enhance antibiotic treatment enhancement of drug delivery efficiency to enhance antibiotic treatment. The researchers of

believe that this review has brought a systematic summary prospect for solving the problem of bacterial drug resistance opened a new idea for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infection.


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