Russian president demanded that exports of Russian gas to "unfriendly" countries be settled in rubles. The demand has raised concerns in Germany about possible supply disruptions and the impact on industry and households if utilities do not pay in robles. Europe gets about 40% of its gas from Russia. Last year, Europe imported about 155 billion cubic meters. Germany, Europe's largest economy, depends heavily on Russian gas.
The chief executive of Germany's E.ON said the German economy would face "significant damage, which should be avoided if possible" without Russian supplies. He also said it would take Germany three years to wean itself off Russian gas.
In the event of a supply disruption, Germany's gas network regulator would prioritize home heating over industrial use, so energy-hungry manufacturers such as steelmakers would be the first to suffer, he said.
The volatile international situations will continue to affect the markets and prices of many commodities like the hafnium carbide powder.
Hafnium carbide (HfC) is a grayish black powder with a face-centered cubic structure. It has a very high melting point (3890℃), is known to have a high melting point among single compounds, and is a good material for the lining of metal melting crucibles with high melting point.
Hafnium carbide has high elastic coefficient, good electrical and thermal conductivity, small coefficient of thermal expansion and good impact resistance, so it is very suitable for rocket nozzle materials, and it is also an important cermet material.
What is Hafnium Carbide HfC Used For?
Hafnium carbide is a kind of ceramic material with high temperature resistance and oxidation resistance, which has the advantages of good electrothermal conductivity and low thermal expansion. Hafnium carbide is suitable for manufacturing rocket nozzles, wing front and other important components, mainly used in aerospace, industrial ceramics and other fields.
Hafnium carbide has high hardness, can be used as an additive of cemented carbide and can form solid solution with many compounds (such as ZrC, TaC, etc.). It has been widely used in the field of cutting tools and moulds.
Hafnium carbide has high elastic coefficient, good electrothermal conductivity, small thermal expansion coefficient and good impact resistance, so it is suitable for rocket nozzle material, can be used in the nose cone of rocket, and has important applications in aerospace field. It also has important applications in nozzles, high-temperature lining, arc or electrolysis electrodes.
Hafnium carbide has good solid phase stability and chemical corrosion resistance, so it has great potential for use in high temperature environment. In addition, the field emission performance of carbon nanotube cathode can be improved by evaporating HfC film on the surface of carbon nanotube cathode.
The ablation resistance of hafnium carbide can be improved by adding hafnium carbide to Chand C composite. Hafnium carbide has many excellent physical and chemical properties, which makes it widely used in high temperature materials.
How Hard is Hafnium Carbide HfC?
Hafnium carbide has high hardness (> 9 Mohs). However, due to the technical complexity and high cost of synthesis, the use of HfC is limited.
What is Hafnium and What is It Used For?
Hafnium is a glossy silver-gray transition metal. It was discovered in 1923 and is the penultimate element in the periodic table with a stable nucleus (the last one is rhenium in 1925). Hafnium is rarely dissociated in nature, but exists in most zirconium minerals at a concentration of up to 5%. In fact, hafnium is very similar to zirconium in chemistry, so it is very difficult to separate the two elements. Most commercial hafnium is produced as a by-product of zirconium refining.
Hafnium is the 45th most abundant element on earth, accounting for about 3.3 parts per million (ppm) of the earth's crust by weight. Hafnium is very corrosion resistant due to the formation of an oxide film on the exposed surface. In fact, it is not affected by water, air and all bases and acids except hydrogen fluoride.
Hafnium has remarkable corrosion resistance and excellent neutron absorbent and can be used in nuclear submarines and nuclear reactor control rods which is a key technology for maintaining fission reaction. The control rod keeps the fission chain reaction active, but also prevents its acceleration from getting out of control.
Hafnium is used in electronic equipment such as cathodes and capacitors, as well as ceramics, photographic flash and bulb filaments. It is used as a getter in a vacuum tube, a substance that binds to the tube and removes trace gases from the tube. Hafnium is usually alloyed with other metals such as titanium, iron, niobium and tantalum. For example, heat-resistant hafnium-niobium alloys are used in aerospace applications, such as space rocket engines.
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Greece will hand over Iranian oil it intercepted from a Russian-flagged tanker to the United States at the request of the U.S. Justice Department, Greek port police said recently, AFP reported. The decision angered Tehran.
In April, Greek authorities reportedly seized a Russian oil tanker, the Pegas, which was said to be heading to the Turkish port of Marmara.
Reports say the ship was docked in Calistos Bay with a crew of several people said to be Russian. The Greek coast guard said the ship had been renamed the Lana.
The report notes that the European Union imposed sanctions on Russia after the conflict broke out in February. Greek authorities seized the tanker in accordance with European Union sanctions.
According to information at the time, the tanker was carrying 115,000 tons of Iranian oil.
Iran's Ports and Maritime Organization strongly protested Greece's decision, calling it an "international bandit." "The Islamic Republic of Iran will not give up its legitimate rights and expects the Greek government to abide by its international obligations in the area of navigation and shipping," it said in a statement on its website.
Iran's Foreign Ministry, through the International Maritime Organization, called on the Greek government to release the tanker and its crew overnight, adding that "the Americans discharged their cargo," the report said.
Athens did not immediately respond to the Iranian protest and gave no further details about the oil on board or how it was handed over to the United States, the report said.
The hafnium carbide powder price is expected to increase in the next few days affected by the change in supply and demand markets.
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