The World Bank expects global economic growth to slow significantly, from 5.5% in 2021 to 4.1% in 2022 and further to 3.2% in 2023. Growth in East Asia and the Pacific is expected to slow to 5.1 percent in 2022, reflecting the impact of China's economic slowdown, the report said. China's economic growth is expected to fall to 5.1% in 2022, close to potential growth, due to the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Chinese government's tightening of regulations in certain sectors of the economy. The report said that the rapid spread of the Omicron variant means that the new crown epidemic is likely to continue to disrupt economic activity in the near future. In addition, decelerating growth in major economies, including the United States and China, will depress external demand in emerging markets and developing economies.
Slow economic growth has a huge impact on pce powder.
Natural river sand has been exhausted after decades of large-scale mining, concrete production enterprises began to use machine-made sand as fine aggregate on a large scale. Some limestone powder will inevitably be produced in the process of machine-made sand preparation, which will not only affect the performance of concrete, but also affect the effect of polycarboxylic acid admixture.
The results show that stone powder has different effects on the working properties, mechanical properties, chloride penetration resistance, sulfate resistance and freeze-thaw resistance of concrete. Stone powder can play a physical filling effect in the cementitious material system, which can reduce the water secretion of cement paste, improve the dispersion ability of cement paste, and can also be used as the crystal nucleus of calcium hydroxide to accelerate the hydration of cement particles and affect the pore structure of hydration products. Stone powder can adsorb polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer molecules on the surface, which can reduce the saturation point of superplasticizer under certain conditions, increase the initial fluidity of cement mortar, reduce the time loss of fluidity of cement mortar, and improve the compatibility between superplasticizer and cement.
Effect mechanism of limestone powder on water-reducing effect of pce powder
The hydrophilicity of limestone powder particles is low, that is, the adhesion of water molecules on the surface of limestone particles is small, which makes limestone powder have a certain physical water-reducing effect. In addition, limestone powder has a larger specific surface area than cement and has the filling effect of micro-aggregate, that is, small limestone particles can fill the pores between cement particles and replace the free water between cement particles. This is the aspect that limestone powder is beneficial to the water-reducing effect of polycarboxylic acid.
At the same time, polycarboxylic acid superplasticizer can be adsorbed on the surface of cement particles and on the surface of limestone powder, that is, there is competitive adsorption of polycarboxylic acid molecules between limestone powder and cement in the paste. this will reduce the density of polycarboxylic acid adsorbed on the surface of cement particles, and then reduce the water-reducing effect of polycarboxylic acid. In addition, the limestone powder with larger specific surface area needs more water, which will reduce the fluidity of the slurry. This is the aspect that limestone powder is not conducive to polycarboxylic acid to play a water-reducing effect.
The above analysis shows that limestone powder has both positive and negative effects on the water-reducing effect of polycarboxylic acid. In the case of low content of limestone powder, because the hydrophilicity of limestone powder is low, and the filling effect of fine particles is easy to play, the favorable effect of limestone powder on the water-reducing effect of polycarboxylic acid can effectively counteract the adverse effect, which shows that the effect of low content of limestone powder on the water-reducing effect of polycarboxylic acid is not obvious. In the case of high content of limestone powder, because limestone powder has larger specific surface area and higher water demand, and limestone powder and cement have competitive adsorption to polycarboxylic acid molecules, limestone will obviously reduce the water-reducing effect of polycarboxylic acid.
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Cancer cells can "stretch out a big hand" and take away the mitochondria of immune cells. The Harvard Medical School research team cultured mouse and human breast cancer cells and immune cells, such as killer T cells, and used field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to observe the relationship between cancer cells and immune cells. interactive. Interestingly, they found that cancer cells stick out long nanotubes, typically within 100-1000 nanometers in diameter, each of which connects to multiple immune cells along the way. The researchers used the drug L-778123, which inhibits the formation of nanotubes, for treatment. The higher the concentration of L-778123, the better the treatment effect.
It is used in various high-tech fields, so the market demand for pce powder will continue to rise. We are a quality supplier of pce powder, please feel free to contact us.
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