Aluminium buyers in the US physical metal market have held off on new orders amid fears of a recession triggered by rising inflation and supply chain crises.
Spot aluminium trading on the market has been suspended in recent weeks, according to industry sources, as uncertainty has increased following the outbreak of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Even before the war, the aluminium market was suffering from long waiting times and weak demand.
For aluminium buyers, recent poor US economic data have been a big factor in delaying purchases. Data released last month showed that the ISM manufacturing PMI came in at 57.1 in March, below expectations of 59 and down from 58.6 in February, unexpectedly hitting the lowest reading since September 2020. This was mainly due to a slowdown in new orders and concrete superplasticizer are expected to increase in the future.
Concrete water reducing agent is one of the technical ways to reduce the cement dosage, improve the utilization rate of industrial waste residue, and realize the durability and high performance of concrete. It is also one of the key materials for the development of concrete to high-tech field. And polycarboxylate type water reducing agent (PC) has become a kind of efficient water reducing agent with the most rapid development and the largest market potential because of its low toxicity and environmental protection characteristics. Compared with the traditional admixtures, the admixtures have become the focus of worldwide research and development because of their excellent dispersibility and slump retention ability.
Although polycarboxylate water reducing admixture outstanding performance and ability to maintain good slump has been widely recognized, but because of the existence of mineral composition, cement fineness, cement plaster form and content, admixture adding amount, and the mixing process of concrete mixture ratio, water has a very high sensitivity, seriously affected the existing products are widely used in engineering.
What is Polycarboxylate Series Water Reducing Agent?
Polycarboxylate superplasticizer is a kind of surfactant containing carboxylic graft copolymer. Its molecules are comb shaped and have high steric hindrance effect. As the third generation of high-performance water reducing agent after lignosulfonate ordinary water reducing agent, naphthalene series aliphatic group, sulfamate and other high-efficiency water reducing agent.
It is because of molecular structure design performance is good, high reduce water, low admixture amount, keep slump good, enhance good, contain alkali amount is low, to set time influence is small, and most cement compatibility is good and pollution-free and other advantages are regarded as the most development potential of water reducing agent variety.
Polycarboxylate superplasticizer is a new high-efficiency superplasticizer developed and produced successfully after naphthalene, melamine, aliphatic and sulfamate superplasticizer. In its content is low (solid content 0.15% - 0.25%) can produce an ideal water reducing and enhanced effect, less impact on the setting time of concrete and slump retention, adaptability to cement and admixture is relatively good, a smaller influence on drying shrinkage of concrete (usually not too much increase drying shrinkage), without the use of formaldehyde in the process of production and does not discharge waste liquor, SO The low content of 42- and Cl- has been praised by researchers and some users since the beginning.
Why should Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer be Modified?
Compared with naphthalene series high efficient water reducing agent, such as, although poly carboxylic acid water reducing agent in the reduction of water conservation slump has obvious advantages in aspects of environmental protection, but there are some technical problems in the practical engineering application, such as water reducing effect of concrete raw materials, mixing ratio, water reducing agent dosage dependence is very big, fresh concrete performance is sensitive to water consumption, easy preparation of large liquidity segregation layer. Poor compatibility with other water-reducing agents and modified components and poor product stability greatly restrict the wide application and development of polycarboxylate water-reducing agents.
In order to overcome the technical defects in the application of polycarboxylate water-reducing agent, or to improve some or some properties of concrete (workability, slump retention, reduction of bleeding, improvement of early strength, low shrinkage, etc.), it is necessary to modify the concrete.
In practice, the commonly used modification methods include synthetic technology and compound technology. Compared with the synthetic process, the compound method has the advantages of simple operation and low cost, so it is widely used in practical applications. Polycarboxylate series compound technology, is the polycarboxylate series water-reducing agent and other components (such as slow coagulation, defoamy, air induction, early strength and other components) according to a certain proportion of the combination compound, in order to achieve the coordination of the superposition of each component.
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The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic not only had a significant impact on public health, it also severely affected one of the linchpins of the global economy – the tourism industry. As many countries introduced curfews and travel restrictions to contain the spread of the virus, travel across the world significantly declined from early 2020 onwards. The financial repercussions of the coronavirus have already begun to manifest themselves within the tourism industry. In 2020, global revenue from the travel and tourism industry was estimated to drop from a forecasted 711.94 billion U.S. dollars to 568.6 billion U.S. dollars, representing a decrease of over 20 percent. The region predicted to see the highest decline in revenue was Europe, decreasing from 211.97 billion U.S. dollars in 2019 to roughly 124 billion U.S. dollars in 2020.
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